Friday, April 16, 2010

PHY 530, Bioelectric Phenomena

This week I finished up my PHY 530 class (Bioelectric Phenomena), which I discussed once before in this blog. Rather than adopting a textbook, I based this graduate class on a collection of scientific papers. Below I list the three dozen papers we studied. It should not be regarded as a “greatest hits” list. Some are Nobel Prize winning papers, but oftentimes I selected a lesser-known article that happened to cover a specific topic I wanted to teach. Many are cited in the 4th edition of Intermediate Physics for Medicine and Biology (indicated by a *). Students were assigned the 16 papers marked in bold: they had to take a quiz on each of these before we discussed them in class, and the exams often contained questions drawn directly from these papers. The other 20 articles are supplementary: consider them recommended reading, rather than required.

I had two goals in the class: to teach the basic elements of bioelectricity, and to lead a workshop on how to write a scientific paper. The students were given two projects (one was to simulate a squid nerve axon using the Hodgkin-Huxley model, and the other was to determine a dipole source from simulated EEG data) and had to write up their results in a brief (4 page maximum) paper having the classic structure: Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, References. We read essays related to writing scientific papers, such as "What's Wrong With These Equations?" and "Writing Physics," both by N. David Mermin, and learned to use the Science Citation Index. I am pleased with how the class went, and I hope the students were too.

1. A. L. Hodgkin and A. F. Huxley (1939) Action potentials recorded from inside a nerve fiber. Nature 144:710-711. *

2. A. L. Hodgkin and B. Katz (1949) The effect of sodium ions on the electrical activity of the giant axon of the squid. J. Physiol. 108:37-77.

3. A. L. Hodgkin and A. F. Huxley (1952) A quantitative description of membrane current and its application to conduction and excitation in nerve. J. Physiol. 117:500-544. *

4. D. A. Doyle, J. M. Cabral, R. A. Pfuetzner, A. Kuo, J. M. Gulbis, S. L. Cohen, B. T. Chait, and R. MacKinnon (1998) The structure of the potassium channel: Molecular basis of K+ conduction and selectivity. Science 280:69-77. *

5. O. P. Hamill, A. Marty, E. Neher, B. Sakmann, and F. J. Sigworth (1981) Improved patch-clamp techniques for high-resolution current recording from cells and cell-free membrane patches. Pflugers Arch 391:85-100. *

6. A. L. Hodgkin and W. A. H. Rushton (1946) The electrical constants of a crustacean nerve fibre. Proc. Roy. S. Lond B 133:444-479. *

7. W. A. H. Rushton (1951) A theory of the effects of fibre size in medullated nerve. J. Physiol. 115:101-122. *

8. R. FitzHugh (1961) Impulses and physiological states in theoretical models of nerve membrane. Biophys. J. 1:445-466.

9. W. Rall (1962) Theory of physiological properties of dendrites. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 96:1071-1092.

10. F. Rattay (1989) Analysis of models for extracellular fiber stimulation. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 36:676-682.

11. A. T. Barker, R. Jalimous, and I. L. Freeston (1985) Non-invasive magnetic stimulation of human motor cortex. Lancet 8437:1106-1107. *

12. M. Hallett and L. G. Cohen (1989) Magnetism: A new method for stimulation of nerve and brain. JAMA 262:538-541. *

13. B. J. Roth, L. G. Cohen and M. Hallett (1991) The electric field induced during magnetic stimulation. Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. (Suppl 43):268-278.

14. R. Plonsey (1974) The active fiber in a volume conductor. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 21:371-381.

15. B. J. Roth, D. Ko, I. R. von Albertini-Carletti, D. Scaffidi and S. Sato (1997) Dipole localization in patients with epilepsy using the realistically shaped head model. Electroenceph. Clin. Neurophysiol. 102:159-166.

16. M. Schneider (1974) Effect of inhomogeneities on surface signals coming from a cerebral current-dipole source. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 21:52-54.

17. B. J. Roth and J. P. Wikswo (1985) The magnetic field of a single axon: A comparison of theory and experiment. Biophys. J. 48:93-109. *

18. M. Hamalainen, R. Hari, R. J. Ilmoniemi, J. Knuutila, and O. V. Lounasmaa (1993) Magnetoencephalography: Theory, instrumentation, and application to noninvasive studies of the working human brain. Rev. Mod. Phys. 65:413-497. *

19. T.-K. Truong and A. W. Song (2006) Finding neuroelectric activity under magnetic-field oscillations (NAMO) with magnetic resonance imaging in vivo. PNAS 103:12598-12601.

20. B. J. Roth and P. J. Basser (2009) Mechanical model of neural tissue displacement during Lorentz effect imaging. Magn. Reson. Med. 61:59-64.

21. A. T. Winfree (1987) When Time Breaks Down. Princeton Univ Press, Princeton, NJ, 106-107. *

22. B. J. Roth (2002) Virtual electrodes made simple: A cellular excitable medium modified for strong electrical stimuli. The Online Journal of Cardiology.

23. D. W. Frazier, P. D. Wolf, J. M. Wharton, A. S. L. Tang, W. M. Smith and R. E. Ideker (1989) Stimulus-induced critical point: Mechanism for electrical initiation of reentry in normal canine myocardium. J. Clin. Invest. 83:1039-1052.

24. N. Shibata, P.-S. Chen, E. G. Dixon, P. D. Wolf, N. D. Danieley, W. M. Smith, and R. E. Ideker (1988) Influence of shock strength and timing on induction of ventricular arrhythmias in dogs. Am. J. Physiol. 255:H891-H901.

25. J. N. Weiss, A. Garfinkel, H. S. Karagueuzian, Z. Qu and P.-S. Chen (1999) Chaos and the transition to ventricular fibrillation: A new approach to antiarrhythmic drug evaluation. Circulation 99:2819-2826.

26. A. Garfinkel, Y.-H. Kim, O. Voroshilovsky, Z. Qu, J. R. Kil, M.-H. Lee, H. S. Karagueuzian, J. N. Weiss, and P.-S. Chen (2000) Preventing ventricular firillation by flattening cardiac restitution. PNAS 97:6061-6066. *

27. N. G. Sepulveda, B. J. Roth and J. P. Wikswo, Jr. (1989) Current injection into a two-dimensional anisotropic bidomain. Biophys. J. 55:987-999. *

28. B. J. Roth (1992) How the anisotropy of the intracellular and extracellular conductivities influences stimulation of cardiac muscle. J. Math. Biol. 30:633-646. *

29. Efimov I. R., Y. Cheng, D. R. Van Wagoner, T. Mazgalev, and P. J. Tchou (1998) Virtual electrode-induced phase singularity: A basic mechanism of defibrillation failure. Circ. Res. 82:918-925.

30. Efimov, I. R., Y. N. Cheng, M. Biermann, D. R. Van Wagoner, T. N. Mazgalev, and P. J. Tchou (1997) Transmembrane voltage changes produced by real and virtual electrodes during monophasic defibrillation shock delivered by an implantable electrode. J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 8:1031-1045.

31. Roth, B. J. (1995) A mathematical model of make and break electrical stimulation of cardiac tissue using a unipolar anode or cathode. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 42:1174-1184.

32. Cheng, Y., V. Nikolski, and I. R. Efimov (2000) Reversal of repolarization gradient does not reverse the chirality of the shock-induced reentry in the rabbit heart. J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol. 11:998-1007.

33. Trayanova, N. A., B. J. Roth, and L. J. Malden (1993) The response of a spherical heart to a uniform electric field: A bidomain analysis of cardiac stimulation. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 40:899-908.

34. Nielsen, P. M. F., I. J. Le Grice, B. H. Smaill, and P. J. Hunter (1991) Mathematical model of geometry and fibrous structure of the heart. Am. J. Physiol. 260:H1365-H1378.

35. Krassowska, W., T. C. Pilkington, and R. E. Ideker (1987) The closed form solution to the periodic core-conductor model using asymptotic analysis. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 34:519-531.

36. Rodriquez, B., J. C. Eason, and N. Trayanova (2006) Differences between left and right ventricular anatomy determine the types of reentrant circuits induced ay an external electric shock. A rabbit heart simulation study. Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 90:399-413.

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